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'거북이와 두루미'에 해당되는 글 1건

  1. 2013.07.13 Korean culture may offer clues in Asiana crash
2013.07.13 08:19 잭스피킹 호흡영어
아시아나 항공 여객기가 샌프란시스코에 착륙하면서 사고가 난 것을 보면서~ 드는 생각은 비행기 타고 여행을 다니는 사람이나 승객을 싣고 해외를 날아다니는 사람들 영어를 해야하지 않을까? 그렇지 않은 것을 보면 그냥 놀랍고 대단하기만 하다. 하늘을 날아 다니는 비행기도 영어와 관련이 있지만 테크날러지와 영어는 밀접한 관련이 있다. 곧 우리나라에서 비행기를 만들고, 샌프란시스코를 울릉도 옆에다 데려다 놓으면  영어를 하지 않아도 되는 세상이 될텐데... 아마 이번 사건을 계기로 그런 생각을 하는 똑똑한 사람들도 있을 것이다. 여기서 영어를 하는 것은 영어로 말을 하는 것(speaking)을 말한다. 커뮤니케이션은 글로 하는 것이 아니라 말(speaking)로 하는 것이므로 일과 관련된 경우엔 꼭 필요한 것이다. 이렇게 필요한 경우에조차 바빠서 영어를 못한다는 사람들 많이 보았다. 그래 바쁠 것이다. 그냥 말(speaking) 안하면 되지 뭐. 그럼, 되고 말고. 블랙박스 결과가 다 나온 것은 아니지만 조종사들이 말을 하지 않았다(의견을 나눈적이 없다)는 것이 보도되어 미국사람들을 놀랬켰다. "왜 서로 말을 안해?" "사고전에도 서로 의견을 말하지 않았어?" "엉?" "왜?" "그것이 문화라네!" "말 안하는게 문화라고?" 하고 말이다. 남들(미국인들)에게 보이기 위해 말(speaking) 을 하자는 것이 아니라 머리(brain)를 사용하기 위해 말을 하자는 것이다. 발만 움직이면서 타는 자전거를 타지 말고 온 몸을, 온 브레인을 움직이면서 호흡을 통해 자전거를 타보자는 이야기다. 이렇게 타는 자전거 한번 경험해 보고싶지 않어?
영어공부하러 온 분이 있다면 글도 읽고 비디오도 천천히 들어보면, 사건의 내막과 이들이 사건을 어떻게 다루고 결론을 내는지 알 수 있다. 국가망망신인데 왜 들먹거려? 실수는 누구든지 하게 되어있다. 무엇이 문제였을까? 남의 이야기나 뉴스에 나온 결과만 듣고 믿지 말고 객관적이 좀 되어보자.
항공기 사고가 났는데 문화가 달라서란 말이 등장하는것 신기하다. 업데이트한 내용이 아래로 죽 내려가면 나온다. 소리로 들어보고 기사도 읽어보라.

Man catches plane crash on camera



Korean culture may offer clues in Asiana crash
Heesun Wee

July 9, 2013 at 2:09 PM ET

Investigators combing through the debris and data recordings from the Asiana Airlines jet that crashed in San Francisco Saturday may learn more about what happened inside the cockpit of the Boeing 777 aircraft by studying an unlikely clue: Korean culture.

South Korea's aviation industry has faced skepticism about its safety and pilot habits since a few deadly crashes beginning in the 1980s. But despite changes, including an improved safety record, Korea's aviation sector remains rooted in a national character that's largely about preserving hierarchy—and asking few questions of those in authority.

"The Korean culture has two features—respect for seniority and age, and quite an authoritarian style," said Thomas Kochan, a professor at the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "You put those two together, and you may get more one-way communication—and not a lot of it upward."

In the Korean language, you speak to superiors and elders in an honorific form that requires more words and can be more oblique than in English, for example. It's less, "Yo! You want water?"; and more, "It's a warm day for a nice refreshment, no?" This may sound trivial. But put this in the context of a cockpit, where seconds and decision-making are crucial, and communication and culture can matter.

The Asiana pilots on Flight 214 apparently did not discuss their predicament, the Los Angeles Times reported Tuesday, citing cockpit voice recordings.

It's still early in the the investigation of the flight from Seoul, South Korea. It will be months before the National Transportation Safety Board can say what happened inside the cockpit, and who communicated what to whom.

But as the details unravel, expect Korea's cockpit culture and training to be scrutinized further. With two Chinese teenagers dead and 180 injured out of more than 300 passengers, the crash offers an abrupt reflection on South Korea's tarnished aviation legacy, which officials there had hoped was behind them.

On Tuesday, Asiana Airlines Chief Executive Yoon Young-doo said the carrier has plans to improve training for its pilots. He said the pilot and co-pilot on the aircraft were qualified. "The two pilots on the plane have enough qualifications, having flown to San Francisco 33 times and 29 times respectively,'' he said.

It was pilot Lee Gang-guk's first time landing a Boeing 777 at San Francisco International Airport. Lee Jung-min, 49, the senior co-pilot in the cockpit with the younger Lee, had more experience flying 777s into San Francisco.


Investigators have started interviewing the Asiana crew, and hope to wrap up interviews Tuesday, Deborah Hersman, chairwoman of the National Transportation Safety Board, which is investigating the crash, told CNBC Tuesday. The 46-year-old pilot will be interviewed later Tuesday, said Hersman.

A long-standing flying adage is: aviate, navigate, communicate. "You have to have great communication among people in a team, especially in high-risk environments," said Kochan, also co-director of the MIT Sloan Institute for Work and Employment Research.

(Read More: Captain of Crashed San Francisco Plane Was 'in Training')

The crash Saturday was Asiana's third accident involving fatalities since its founding in 1988. As data recordings were collected on those previous crashes, a trend emerged. "What came up was the military culture in which the South Korean pilots grew up in," said John S. Park, an expert on the Koreas and a Stanton Nuclear Security junior faculty fellow at MIT.

Young men in South Korea must serve mandatory military service, so some air force veterans transition to civilian aviation careers. (Some American veterans, who have served after Sept. 11, are also transitioning into aviation jobs.)

But sometimes that transition into the private sector comes with military baggage.

Korea's authoritarian structure, not surprisingly, is reflected in its industries including aviation, where co-pilots traditionally have not been encouraged to challenge senior pilots. Military training only adds to constant self-awareness about where you are in an organization's pecking order—and not speaking out of turn.

While workplace trends are modernizing, many Korean companies still promote and reward seniority—over merit and achievements. And it's this constant reminder of a pecking order that can grip a military unit, an aviation cockpit—even a national soccer system.

In 2002, South Korea became the only Asian nation to make the World Cup tournament's semifinal round of four after a foreigner—Guus Hiddink, a Dutch coach—squashed cronyism and rewarded players on talent. "They couldn't have made a successful team under the old Korean leadership," said Choe Yong Ho, a University of Hawaii emeritus history professor, at the time.

South Korea's aviation industry has brought in new blood, too. After the crashes during the '80s, Western pilots were hired to bring in fresh blood and ideas. But a culture shift did not come in time for a fatal 1997 Korean Air flight.

(Read More: Entrepreneur Retrains Veterans as Helicopter Pilots)

The most recent crash involving a South Korean carrier was in 1997, when a Korean Air 747 slammed into a hill while approaching the airport in Guam, killing 225 people and later prompting a downgrade of South Korea's aviation rating by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration to category 2.

The rating was restored to Category 1 in December 2001, enabling Korean carriers to open new routes, which they were not allowed to do under the lower category.

In a chapter titled "The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes," author Malcolm Gladwell in "Outliers" dissects the flight recorder transcript of the final minutes of KAL Flight 801 between the captain and first officer. As the weather worsened, Gladwell argues culture influenced the way in which the pilots communicated. The first officer politely referred to "weather radar"—instead of using a more direct, Western-style of communication, i.e., "there's trouble ahead."

In 2000, a Delta Air Lines executive was brought in to run KAL's flight operations. The Delta executive made aviation English a priority, Gladwell notes. He also brought in Alteon, a subsidiary of Boeing, to take over company training and instruction programs. A Boeing spokesman declined to comment on that KAL training given the ongoing nature of the current Asiana investigation.

As Korean pilots broadly have worked to improve operations, Korean flight attendants undergo rigorous training with constant evaluation. The Asiana crew on Flight 214 are being praised for their timely response in ushering passengers off the plane. Clad in high-heeled pumps and pencil skirts, the women coolly carried out rescue tasks, NBC News reported. "It's remarkable that on one plane you can have two different cultures," said Park, an MIT fellow.

The larger question for investigators is how on a good weather day, an experienced Asiana crew was flying too slow, and clipped the end of the runway before crashing. Early information from data recordings suggests no mechanical problems, NTSB's Hersman said.

"We really do need to understand, 'Who was the pilot in command?' 'Who was the pilot flying at the time?' 'What kind of conversations were they having?' " Hersman told CNBC Monday. "There is an expectation that anyone who's putting themselves out there to provide passenger service meets minimum safety standards," she said in an additional CNBC interview Tuesday.

The key pilot in question, Lee Gang-guk, had logged 43 hours flying the 777 over nine flights. It was his first landing of a 777 at SFO. It takes 60 hours and 10 flights to be considered fully qualified, the airline told NBC News. When a pilot learns a new type of aircraft, the status before full qualification is known as transition training.

Lee had a long, otherwise untarnished career, including nearly 9,700 hours clocked flying the Airbus A320 and the Boeing 737 and 747, NBC News reported. The senior co-pilot, Lee Jung-min, had more than 3,000 hours on the 777.

NBC News, the Associated Press and Reuters contributed to this report.

By CNBC's Heesun Wee; Follow her on Twitter @heesunwee.



참고: http://www.nbcnews.com/business/korean-culture-may-offer-clues-asiana-crash-6C10578732




많은 글을 읽고 하나 채택한 글인데 무슨 생각이 드는지모르겠다.
나는 내가 전에 올린 글 중에 "김 수한무 거북이와 두루미~"(
영어이름표기순서:성씨 왜 뒤에 쓸까? 내용의 일부 중에) 이 글 생각이 났다.
종놈이 급히 와서 주인에게 알린다. "영감 마님 아뢰올 말이 있습니다. 김 수한무 거북이와 두루미 삼천갑자 동방삭 치치카포 사리사리센타 워리워리 새프리카 무두셀라 구름이 허리케인 담벼락 서생원에 고양이 바둑이는 돌돌이 도련님이 물에 빠지셨습니다."고 해서 오래 살아야할 아들은 죽었다는 웃기지 않는 이야기는 우리가 짓는(가진) 이름에 대해 한번더 생각하게 한다. 이런 이야기까지 있는 것을 보면 우리이름은 확실히 미국인들이 부르는 간단한 이름과는 다르다.



Chairman Hersman's final media briefing on Asiana flight 214 crash July 11, 2013




Chairman Hersman's fourth media briefing on Asiana flight 214 crash





Third victim of Asiana plane crash dies








아래 글을 업데이트합니다. 8/18/2013 우리문화에 대한 유사한 이야기들이 나옵니다. 영어공부를 하시는 분들은 단어 일일히 찾지 말고 그냥 죽 읽어내려 가면서 보세요. 한번 죽 읽고 무엇에 대해 촛점이 맞추어진 글인가 한번 생각해보고 다시 한번 더 읽으면서어 내려가 보세요. 이번에도 같은 방법으로~ 조금 감이 오면 다른 글도 같은 방법으로 트라이해 보세요. 비디오 소리도 들어 보세요.

Aviation Experts Question Whether Culture Had Role in Asiana Crash



Carolyn Presutti  August 15, 2013 




“The Safety Board concludes that the first officer and flight engineer failed to properly monitor and/or challenge the captain’s performance, which was causal to the accident," the NTSB reported.  It goes on to say, “Problems associated with subordinate officers challenging a captain are well known.”  It also mentions “KAL’s inadequate flight crew training.”
 
Two years later, another fatal crash involving Korean Air occurs in London.  According to the British Aircraft Accident Report, the first officer said nothing about the plane’s unsafe altitude and the captain ignored warnings from the flight engineer, who was 20 years his junior. The investigative team advised the South Koreans to revise training to “accommodate the Korean culture,” which places great weight on seniority and discourages younger people and subordinates from challenging their elders or superiors.
 
The South Korean government ordered Korean Air to suspend 138 flights a week for 6 months and to concentrate on improving safety and training. 
 
Suspension, downgrade

Transport Canada conducted a special safety audit of Korean Air and then issued a notice of suspension to Korean Air. The airline corrected the safety concerns so the suspension never took effect. 
 
The FAA downgraded all of South Korea's airlines from a Category 1 International Safety rating to a Category 2. By the end of the year, South Korea regained its Category 1 status.
 
At the time, Jim Hall was the chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board, which had investigated the Guam crash. 
 
VOA showed him the similarities between that 1997 crash and the one involving Asiana. 
 
“I think the Asiana crash (investigator) is going to have to look and ask, ‘Was this an unusual situation in which it was just crew error? Or is this an indication that the lessons that were pointed out in the previous accidents still have not been learned and not taken root in the Korean aviation system?’ ” Hall said.
 
The NTSB and South Korean officials say the captain landing in San Francisco, Lee Kang-kook, was on his first trip to become certified to operate the 777. He has logged more than 9,400 hours of flying, but only 43 on the 777. 
 
The instructor pilot, Captain Lee Jeong-min, was on his first trip as a training captain and was the senior pilot. As a former military pilot, he is three years older. He has more than 12,000 flight hours and 3,200 on the 777. The relief co-pilot is seven years his junior. 
 
Cultural idiosyncrasies

Sources who understand Korean culture say many factors establish hierarchy - like age, rank, schools attended, union status and military service. Conformity is encouraged.
 
A former Asiana pilot who spoke to VOA on condition of anonymity described how seniority can be established at the airline. “The military pilots get super-seniority when they get hired by Asiana," he says. "They get a 10-year career in the service and maybe only get out with 2,000 hours of fly time. In America, most airlines have a seniority system. If your seniority number comes up and you want to bid for a new airplane, you have to pass the proper tests.”
 
Park Jong-kook is executive director of the South Korean pilots' union.
 
“It was true that this kind of tradition affected the communication at the cockpit before the crash in Guam happened," says Park. "There was a vertical or military tradition in the past. But, the companies have put forward a lot of effort to improve this kind of tradition.”
 
Kwon Yong-bok is director general of Aviation Safety Policy at the South Korean transport ministry. He says about 14 percent of the pilots in the country are foreigners, "so Korean culture is changing more globally and universally.”
 
Ross Aimer, a former United Airlines captain, was brought in to train the Korean Air pilots in 2005 and 2006.   
 
Change hard to come by

“It would take perhaps generations of pilots to eventually change the culture into a Western type of flying culture.”
 
Captain Vic Hooper retired from Asiana two years ago. He says Korean deference in the cockpit was evident from his very first flight until his last. 
 
“I met the other three pilots, I’m going to fly with one of them, but both the first officers come up to me and they put their hands across their chests, and they bow and shake their hands, which is part of their culture, which is show their subservience to the rank. Because like I said, they respect rank, age, and position.”
 
No investigator has yet to formally connect cockpit culture to this crash. But Jim Hall hopes what NTSB investigators accomplished in the '90s was not in vain.
 
“With a decade, it’s not unusual, unfortunately in the accident investigation business, to find that lessons learned are also lessons forgotten as times pass,” he says.
 
Asiana executives bowed and expressed their sympathy and regret at a news conference the same day as the crash. They are initially paying $10,000 to each survivor, but did not want to be interviewed for this story. 
 
Korean Air refused VOA requests for interviews, although KAL did send a list of all the improvements it made following the crashes in the 1990s. Changes were made to training, flight manuals, safety audits and more. KAL, though, is currently under a special safety review by the South Korean government, after one of its jets overshot a runway on August 6.

참고: http://www.voanews.com/content/aviation-experts-question-whether-culture-had-role-in-asiana-crash/1730757.html



글과 비디오를 보고 읽고 들으면서 많은 생각을 할 수 있습니다. 위에서 말한 문화의 차이부터~ 정부의 교통기관 대표로 나온 아름다운 여자가 아래 동영상에서 자신이 갖은 지식을 지혜롭게 말하고 있는지를 볼 수 있습니다. 저는 생각합니다. 우리세대는 아니어도 다음 세대에를 기대해볼 수 있는 사회~ 여기서도 자유가 주제입니다. 자유를 방해하는 것이 무엇인가? 다음 글((쉬운)미국생활영어-10 자신을 소개하는 방법)의 미국생활영어 문제 5. 답 5. 를 참고로 하십시요.


이 글은 뉴욕시간 2013/8/18 업데이트 되었습니다


영어이름표기순서:성씨 왜 뒤에 쓸까?
마이클 스미스 "Awesome God"
posted by 써니의 뉴욕노트 & 잭스피킹 호흡영어


posted by Sunny in New York

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